Old 9th June 2001, 10:44   #1
Bizznatch
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[Edited by Bizznatch on 06-09-2001 at 06:01 AM]
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Old 9th June 2001, 11:08   #2
will
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q12. 1pH W4vE5 C4N 83 p@rtIcl3$, c4N P4r+1Cle5 8e w@ve$?
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q13. 3X@cTlY wh4T I5 I+ +h@+ 15 "w4v1N9"?
WE p01NT3D 0u+ e@RL13r +H@+ A W4Ve is 4 CH@N9E Th4+ v@r1e5 wITH L0c4t1ON 1n 4 pER1ODic, RePe4+iN9 W4Y. Wh@+ kInd oPH 4 Ch@NgE D0 the Cr35+$ 4nd hoLl0W$ OPH A "M4++er w@ve" tRace ou+? +h3 4n5w3r i5 TH4t +3H w4v3 r3pR35eNT5 +3h V4lue 0F @ kW@n+iTY wh053 5kw4rE 15 4 m3@sUr3 of tEH PROB@b1L1+Y oF pH1nDInG +EH p@rTIclE in +H@+ p4RTICUl@R l0c4+1ON. 1N 0+h3R w0RD$, wh4+ 1$ "w@v1N9" I5 TEh v@Lue oPH @ M@Th3m@TIc4L PrOB@biLITy fUncTI0n.


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q14. WH4T i$ +He UNc3R+@intY pr1nciPL3?
iN 1927, W3rNeR H3I53N83R9 pr0PO53D +hAT c3Rt41N p41r5 0Ph pr0PeRt135 0pH 4 p@Rt1ClE c4Nn0+ $1muLt@NE0u5ly H4VE 3X4Ct v@lU3$. 1N p4r+1CuL@R, +H3 po$1T10N 4nD +3H mOM3nTUM 0f 4 p4RT1cLE h4ve a5SOcI4+eD wI+h thEm UnC3rt@1n+ie5 x 4ND p 9iV3n 8Y



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q16. 4R3 +HeY p4R+1CLE$ OR @RE Th3y w4VE5?
5uPpo53 w3 D1r3C+ @ 8e@m of PHOt0N5 (0r el3cTR0n5; +h3 3XpErIMen+ w0RK5 w1tH b0th) +oWarD A PiEc3 0ph m3t@l h@V1N9 @ NArr0W opeN1N9. 0N T3h o+heR 5ID3 tHEre @Re TW0 m0r3 OpeN1N95, or 5lI+$. phIN4LLy tHE p4rT1CL35 iMpin93 ON 4 Ph0TogR4pHIC Pl@+3 0r 5OME 0+HeR RECoRdIN9 deviCe. T4kiN9 in+O 4Cc0un+ ThE1r W4veLiKE CH4r4C+eR, w3 woULd 3xPEC+ Th3 pRo8A8iL1TY W4ves +0 PRoDuce @n 1nT3rph3renCE P4+tERn 0pH tHE KInd ThA+ iS W3LL kNown F0R 5OunD 4Nd ligHT W4V35, 4ND ThIS 1$ ex4C+Ly WH@+ 15 OB53Rved; ThE PL@te rECOrd$ @ $3rie5 0pH @l+ERN4tIn9 d4rK 4Nd L1Gh+ b@NDS, ThU5 d3Mon5+r4T1nG B3YOND douBT +h4+ eL3c+r0n5 4Nd L19HT H@v3 +3h CH4R@ct3r 0ph W@vE$.

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Q17. wHa+ 4R3 L1Ne $p3Ctr@?
W3 h4v3 @lr34DY 533N +H4T 4 9LowIn9 B0DY (0R ACTu4LLY, 4NY B0dY wh0$E +3Mp3r@TuR3 15 4bOv3 0K) 3M1t$ @nd 4850R85 r4d1@+10n 0F 4ll w4v3L3n9+H 1N 4 C0N+1nu0U5 5PeCtRUM. in 5+R1King Con+r4S+ I$ teh 5PeCTRuM OPh liGh+ ProdUceD wHEn C3Rt@1n 5u85+ANC35 @r3 v0L4tILizeD in @ fl4M3, OR wH3n 4N EleCtr1c d15CH@rgE 15 P4553D +Hr0U9H @ TU83 C0nT@1N1nG 9@sEou5 4t0m5 0Ph @N 3LEMEn+. th3 L1GH+ eMItT3D bY $UcH 50UrcE5 CoN515+5 EN+1r3LY 0f DI$CRe+E w@vEL3Ng+hS. th15 KInd OpH EmI5S10n 1$ kN0wn 4$ @ d15CR3TE $pEC+RUM 0r l1n3 5P3ctrUM (+H3 "l1NE$" +H4t 4PpeAr 0N phoTO9R@Ph1C IM@9e5 of +EH 5peCTruM 4rE r34LLY 1m4g3s oF +hE SLIT thROU9H wHicH tH3 L19H+ pA$$35 83FoR3 BEInG D15P3r5eD 8y +eH pri5M in +he $P3c+r09R@PH).





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q18. H0w @RE line 5p3C+R@ Or9@n1z3D?
Un+1L 1885, L1n3 $pec+r@ WEr3 L1t+L3 M0rE tHaN "fIn93RpRINT$" OPh T3h Elem3n+5; 3XTR3meLY u$efUL 1N +H3M53lV3$, bu+ iNC4P4bL3 0ph reVEal1n9 4nY M0re +Han T3H IdEn+iPhY 0F the INdIV1du4L @ToM5 pHrom wHICH +H3Y 4ri53. IN Th4T YE@R 4 $W1s5 $CHo0l TEAChEr n@m3d B4lMeR Pu8li5h3D 4 ph0rmUL4 tH4+ REl4+Ed +h3 w4vel3n9Th$ OpH +hE FoUr KN0wN l1N35 1n THE eM1$51oN sp3CtRuM 0pH hYDrog3N 1N 4 S1mPle w4y. b4lMeR'5 pH0rmUL4 w4s N0+ 8453D On +he0RY; it WA5 prob@Bly 4 cA53 oF cuT-4ND-+RY, buT It WorKed: h3 W@$ 4BL3 +O PrEd1C+ +eh W4vELEnG+h opH @ Fiph+h, Y3+-+o-B3 D15c0V3ReD 3MiS51oN l1Ne 0Ph HYDrO9EN, @nD 45 5pEC+rO5COPic @nD 45+r0N0M1C4L +3ChN1kwe5 impRovED (tHe onlY W@y 0Ph 0853rv1Ng h1gHLy ExCit3d HyDro9eN 4toM5 4+ +EH TiME W@S +o 08$eRVE tEH 50L@r 5p3cTRUm during @N EcLIP$3), a +0+4l 0pH 35 liNE5 WER3 dI5c0veR3d, @lL H@v1ng W4V3l3N9tH5 9Iv3N bY TEH f0RmuL4 WhIcH wE wrITE in th3 MOD3rn Mann3r @5



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q19. how l4rg3 c4N N 83?
+HErE i5 N0 L1miT; V@lue5 1N +hE Hundr3d5 h4vE BEen ob$ErV3d, 4l+h0u9H D0iN9 5o 15 VEry DiphFiCuL+ b3c4u$3 0f +hE inCR3451NGly Clo5e 5P@CIn9 0f 5UcC3551V3 lEV3l5 45 N B3CoMe5 L@r93.


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Q21. Wh4t WeR3 +HE Pr0BLem$ w1+h +h3 Pl@NeT4Ry MOdEL 0PH Teh 4tom?
ru+hERf0rd'5 dEm0N$+r4ti0N +h@+ tHE MA5$ aND +3H pO51+1Ve Ch@RgE 0ph +H3 ATom i5 mO$+ly C0NC3nTRA+3D iN 4 VERY +iny R3G1ON c4lLED The NUcL3U5 f0rC3d +H3 kw35TION 0F jU5+ h0W TH3 ELEctroN5 4rE d1$P0$eD OuTsiD3 +h3 NuClEU5. 8Y 4n@L09y WITh +3h 5oL4R 5y5+em, a Pl@nET4RY m0dEl W45 5U9G3$+eD: 1Ph tH3 eL3c+rONS WerE ORBI+Ing t3H nucL3u$, Th3re WOuLd 83 @ CeN+r1pHu9al fOrC3 TH4+ C0uLd opP053 +HE 3LeC+r05t4+iC 4TTRAcTI0n 4Nd +Hu5 KE3P +eh ElECtrON5 PhR0m F@LlING 1N+o +Eh NucLeu$. TH1$ 0F C0uR5e 1$ 5IM1l@r +0 tHe w4y 1n Wh1CH The cEN+r1pHUG4L F0rc3 pRoDUcEd bY 4n or81T1n9 PL@net EX4CtlY b@l4NCE5 TEh f0rC3 Due TO 1t$ Gr4V1+@+Ion4l 4+TR4c+i0n t0 +hE $Un.

ThI5 M0d3l sUPhF3R5 fR0M 0N3 F4+@L We@KN3$$: el3c+r0NS, uNl1k3 PL@Ne+$, 4R3 el3C+r1CAlly Ch4rG3D. 4N elEc+R1c CH4R93 R3VolV1n9 1N @N 0rbIT 15 cON+inuALLY uNdeRg01nG @ ch@n9E OF DIr3c+ion, +h4+ I5, 4CcelER@+i0N. I+ h45 Be3N w3LL kN0wn 51NC3 t3H timE 0Ph Her+z ThA+ 4N 4ccEL3R@+iN9 EL3c+R1c ch@r93 RADI4tE$ 3n3R9Y. WE W0uLD +H3r3PHOR3 3xpect @lL @+Om$ +0 4cT 45 miN14+Ur3 rad1O S+4+ioN5. 3VeN W0R5e, C0N53rv4t10N 0ph eN3R9y ReKwir35 +haT 4Ny 3NeRGY +H4t I5 R4D14TED muST 8E @T thE eXp3N53 Of +3H KineT1c 3n3rGY 0f +3H Or8i+4L Mo+I0N OF the 3Lec+RoN. +HU$ +HE 3L3c+RoN WOULd SloW DOWn, rEDUCINg +3H c3NTr1pHU94l PHORcE 4Nd AlLoWIn9 the ElEC+R0n To 5pIr@l cl0$eR 4nd Cl05ER T0 +3H NucL3u$, 3ven+uALLY pHAlL1n9 1N+o it. 1n 5H0rT, N0 @TOM TH4+ opeR4+35 4cC0rdIN9 tO tH3 pl@ne+ARy modeL wOULd L4s+ L0Ng ENou9H foR U5 +O +@Lk 4BoU+ 1+.

45 1F THI5 W3Re n0T EN0uGh, +hE pL@N3t@ry M0DEL W@$ +oT4lLy Un4BLE +O 3xpl41N @nY 0pH +h3 0b$erv3D pRoPER+135 0ph @+0M5, INclUD1n9 +H3ir LinE $p3ctRA.


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q22. HoW d1D 8oHr'5 +h30Ry $@v3 +3H PL@n3+@RY M0DeL... f0r @ WH1le?
n13l$ 80hR wA$ BorN 1n The 5am3 yE4r (1885) +H4t B4lm3R pUBli5hEd HI5 f0rmUl4 Ph0r ThE l1n3 SPec+RUm oph HYDrO93N. 83G1nN1nG 1n 1913, +h3 8rilL14n+ D4n15H phy51C1$t pU8lI5H3d 4 $3Ri3$ 0f P4PeR5 tH4T w0ulD ULt1M4+3ly D3R1V3 8AlMER'$ phoRMUl@ fR0M Phir5t pr1NC1pLE5.

Bohr's FIr$+ +45k wa5 +o Expl4in Why +eH 0rB1+1n9 ElecTron D03s N0T r4D1A+E 3NeR9Y 45 1t mOves 4r0uNd +H3 NUCl3U$. +h15 3N3rgy l05$, 1Ph It W3r3 to OCcUR 4+ @Ll, WouLd DO 50 9RADU4LlY 4nd smOotHLy. buT PL@nCk h4D 5h0wN th4+ Bl4Ck boDY r4D14+iON C0Uld 0Nly B3 3XPl41neD iPh En3R9y Ch4Ng3S wer3 l1M1+ed +0 jUMp5 1N5+E4D oPH 9R4DU@L cH@N9e5. 1PH ThI5 W3re @ un1VER$4l ChAr@c+eR1$+1c Of 3ner9Y- +HA+ i5, iPh @ll 3NER9y ch4n93$ W3r3 Kw4n+iZ3d, +h3N v3Ry sM@LL ch4nG35 1n 3N3rgy W0uld be iMp055i8le, SO +hat +He 3L3CTR0n woUld 1n EfPh3CT B3 "L0CK3D 1N" +o 1t5 orB1+.

phRoM th15, B0hr w3N+ 0N +0 PR0po$3 tH@+ +H3r3 4RE CeR+@1n 5+@8Le oRb1+5 iN WhiCh T3H 3l3CTROn C4n 3XI$t W1THoUt rADi@t1NG 4nD +HU5 w1+h0u+ f@llINg 1nT0 4 "D34Th spiR4L". Th15 5uppo$1+1oN w4$ 4 d4R1n9 0n3 @+ +3h +im3 83c4us3 it W@5 IncON515TEN+ WI+h Cl45$Ic4l pHy$1C5, 4Nd +he +H30ry Wh1Ch WoUld eVen+uALLy Lend i+ $uppoR+ W0uld N0t Com3 4LON9 uN+iL TH3 W0Rk Of DE BR09Li3 4Nd hEI5enB3r9 M0Re thAN t3N y34r5 l4+3r.

51Nc3 PL4NCK'5 kw4nt4 C4ME 1n MULt1pl35 0ph H, bOHr R3$+r1CT3d Hi5 @ll0WED 0RBIt5 +0 TH05E in wh1ch +EH PRoDuC+ OPH TH3 RAdiuS r 4nD th3 moM3n+Um oPh tEH El3ctR0N Mv (WhicH hAs teh sAM3 uN1+5 As h, J-$) @R3 IN+eGrAL MULT1pl3$ OPH h:

2rmV = nh (n = 1,2,3, . .)

34CH Or81T C0rr3$poND5 t0 @ DiFf3r3n+ 3N3rgY, witH +EH ElecTRoN n0rM4LlY 0CCuPyIN9 TeH oN3 H4ving th3 LowE$t EN3rGy, Wh1ch wOUld Be Th3 1Nn3Rmo5+ 0R81+ OPH TEH HYDR093N 4T0M.

T@kiNG +he L3@d phR0M 3iN5TE1N'$ 3xpLAnA+Ion 0F +hE pHOT03LEC+RIc efphect, 80Hr @$5Um3D +H@t 34cH sP3cTR@L LINe 3M1T+3d 8y 4N 4ToM Th4+ ha5 B3eN eXci+3d 8Y @B5orpTi0N 0F 3n3r9Y pHr0m 4n 3leCtR1c4l D1SCh4rgE 0R 4 phl4Me reprEsEN+$ 4 Ch4N9e 1n 3N3R9y g1v3n 8Y e = HN = Hc/, T3h 3NeR9Y l0$+ WhEn +3H eleCtRON F@Ll5 PHr0m 4 h19heR 0R8iT (V4lu3 0F N) iNt0 4 L0W3R 0n3.

Ph1NalLY, 45 @ cr0wNIn9 +RiuMPh, 80hR DeRIv3D @n EXPRe5$I0n givIng +3h r@DIu5 0pH tHe ntH OrBIt FOR +Eh 3L3C+r0n In HYdRo93N 45



SUB5+iTut1on 0f t3H o8$3RV3d vaLuE5 0pH t3H 3lECtR0N m45$ And 3LEc+ron ch4RgE 1nt0 thi5 3KW4ti0n YI3LDed 4 V@LU3 OPH 0.5293*10 m phor teH r4Diu$ oPh tEh PhiR$T 0rB1+, A v@lu3 tH4t coRRe$PoNd$ +O ThE R@DIU5 OpH tEh HyDrO93n 4t0m 08T41ned EXPerImen+4LlY fR0M +EH Kine+IC +H3oRy opH 9@5E5. bOhr W4$ 4l50 4BL3 +O der1vE @ ForMUL4 9Iv1N9 the v4lu3 0pH Th3 rYD8erg cON$t@NT, 4nd thu$ in eFfeC+ PREdict +3h En+1R3 em15$1oN $P3CTrUM 0F thE hyDRo9en @+oM.


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q23. WhaT W3Re t3H mAIN PR08Lem5 W1+h 80HR'$ +H3ORy?
+HeRe wer3 +w0 KinD5 OpH DIPhf1CULTI35. fir$T, +H3rE w@5 +EH Pr4ct1c4L L1m1T4+10N tHA+ It 0NlY W0rk$ FOr 4+OmS Th4t hAV3 0nE el3cTr0n-- TH4t I5, F0R H, h3+, l12+, 3tc. TEH 5ECond PROBL3M w45 +H@T b0hr w45 UN48l3 to PR0vid3 4Ny +HeoRet1c4L JU5t1pHIcA+10n phoR hI$ 4$5Ump+10N Th@T 3L3C+r0n5 iN Or81t5 DEsCriBED 8y THE prEcEDIn9 3kW4+1On w0Uld N0+ L0sE eNeR9y 8Y r@D1@+10N. +H1$ refl3CT5 +H3 fUnD4m3NT4l Und3RlyIng dIfph1cuLty: beC4US3 De 8ROgl13'5 p1CtuRE of m4+t3r WAV3$ W0uld n0+ c0m3 UN+1l a deC4De l4T3R, B0Hr h@D +0 R3G4RD tH3 3leCtr0n A5 @ CLA5s1C@l P4R+ICLe Tr@vEr51n9 4 d3finiTE orBiT@L P4+H.


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Q24. HoW d1D +he WaV3 Pic+UR3 oph TH3 3l3c+RoN $AV3 bohr'$ +he0rY?
0Nce i+ b3C4M3 4Pp@R3n+ tH4+ +3h 3L3cTR0n Mu5t h4vE a W@v3LiK3 cHAr4C+Er, th1ng5 b3G4n to pH@lL 1nT0 pl@cE. +H3 PO5s1bL3 5T@+E5 Of 4n elEc+roN c0NpHIn3d +O 4 FiXEd $P4ce 4R3 1n MaNY w@Y5 4N4lO9Ous +0 Th3 4Ll0weD $+4+35 0f @ v18r4+iN9 GUit4r S+R1NG. TH3$3 $T4+3$ 4r3 desCrib3d 45 5t@nDIng W4V3$ +h4+ mU5t Pos$355 in+3gr4L NUmber5 0PH N0de5. +Eh 5+4+3$ oF V18R@t1on of the 5+r1nG 4RE d35CRib3d 8y 4 $eR1E5 of 1Nt39R4l NUm8eR5 N = 1,2,... wH1CH W3 CalL +H3 FUnD4m3N+4L, fIR$T OVeR+on3, 53COnd 0V3r+0n3, E+c. Th3 EN3R9Y oph V1Br@TIOn i5 PR0poR+iOn4l +0 n2. 34CH M0D3 Of vIbr4+1ON c0NT4IN5 One MOr3 cOmpLE+e w4VE Th4N +H3 0NE B3LOw 1+.

1N 3x@Ctly T3h $4me way, +he M@Th3m4TIC@l PHuNC+1on +hA+ D3f1N35 T3H PrOB48iL1+y 0ph ph1Nd1nG +eH 3LEc+R0n 4+ 4ny G1V3N l0C@t10n wITh1n a conF1n3d $p@C3 P0$Se5535 n P34KS 4nd c0RR35P0ND5 t0 $T4tE5 IN WH1CH +H3 eneRGy 1$ PROP0rt1On4l t0 N2.

TH3 3L3ctR0N iN @ hYdRO93N 4tOM I$ 80uNd tO +h3 NuCl3us 8y 1T$ $PheRicaLlY SymM3Tr1c4l EL3c+R0St4T1c CH4Rg3, 4nD 5H0ULD th3r3ph0r3 3Xh1B1T 4 51m1l4R kIND OpH w4ve 8eh@VioR. Thi5 I$ mO$+ E@51Ly v15UaL1ZeD 1N a +wo-D1m3n5I0n@L crO5$ S3c+1oN +h@t corr35p0Nds +O The cONventIon@L el3C+rOn 0R81t. 8U+ iPh Th3 p4r+iClE Pictur3 I5 REPl4CEd By de 8r0gli3'5 prOb@8iL1+y w4VE, +hi5 W@v3 mU5T PHOlloW A CIRCUL4r P@+h, 4nD- mO5t iMp0rt@Nt oph 4ll- ItS w4Velength (4Nd cON5eKWen+Ly 1+5 En3RgY) 15 R3$tR1c+ED tO Int39rAL mulT1PLe$ n = 1,2,.. oph T3h CIRCUmph3R3NcE



For oth3rWi5E tEH W@ve woULD C0lL@PSE owiNG +o 53Lf-IN+3rf3r3nc3. +hAT 15, tH3 EN3R9Y OpH TH3 el3ctr0N mu$T bE kW@NT1zED; wH@+ 8oHr h4d T@k3N 4S 4 D@r1N9 8U+ 4RB1TR4Ry 4$5UMPT10N w4$ n0W $E3N 45 4 pHUNd4M3nt4L r3kWIrEMeNt. INdeED +h3 aB0V3 3KW@+i0N c4N 8e D3r1ved v3rY $1MPlY bY COmb1niN9 B0Hr'5 Kw4n+UM c0nditi0n 2pRmv = Nh wi+h TEh ExpRE55ion mV = H/L f0R +He D3 8ro9li3 w4veL3n9+h 0F 4 p4RT1clE.



VI3W1N9 t3H eL3C+r0N 45 @ 5t4NdINg-w4V3 P4+tErn @L50 EXPLaIN$ it5 pH4iLuR3 +o l053 3NeR9Y By R4DiaTINg. cL@s5ic@L +h3oRy pr3D1cT$ +H4+ 4n Acc3lEr@+1nG 3l3ctRic ch4RG3 w1lL 4Ct @5 4 r@d1O +r@N5-M1Tt3R; 4N EL3c+R0n TR4V3l1Ng 4r0UND 4 CirCUl@R WiRe WoUld CEr+@INlY 4cT 1N THi5 W4y, 4ND $0 wOUld oNe rO+4+Ing 1n @N 0rBIt 4r0Und The NucL3Us. In 4 5+4nD1n9 wav3, howevER, +Eh chAr9e i$ d15tRi8U+ed 0V3R $P4ce iN @ r3GUlar @nd uNCH@nginG wAy; +H3r3 15 No m0Tion of Teh cHArge i+5ELph, 4nD thU5 n0 R@dI@+10n.


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q25. Wh4+ I5 @n 0R8i+@L?
B3C4U53 +H3 cL@$5iC@l V13W Of @N 3lEC+r0N 45 4 lOc@lIz4bL3 p@rt1cl3 1$ nOw S33N +o bE UN+EnaBl3, 50 i$ THe coNcep+ 0Ph @ DEPHiNIt3 tr@JEC+ory, OR 0r81T. InS+E4D, We NOw Us3 th3 w0RD 0r8I+4L TO de5crI83 +he $+4T3 0Ph 3X15tEncE OpH 4N 3l3C+r0n. 4N 0rbit4L 15 R3ALLy no MoRe TH@N 4 M4TH3M@TicaL fUnc+10n De$crIBiNg t3h $+4nd1Ng w4Ve +H4+ 9iV35 th3 PRo8@8IL1ty OF +3H 3LEc+roN m4N1PH3S+In9 it$3lpH 4+ @Ny 9ivEn L0c4+ion IN 5P4c3. morE cOmmonLy (@Nd L0053lY) We u53 +h3 wORd +o dE5cr18E T3H REgi0N 0f 5PAcE OCCUP13d by @n 3L3cTRon. 34CH kiND 0F 0rb1t4l IS ch4RaC+3r1zeD 8y A $E+ OPH KWANTum numBER5 N, l, @nd M +h3$3 rEl@t3, Re5p3ctiv3LY, +o tHe aV3r49E dI5t4NCe 0F tH3 3lEc+roN pHRoM +h3 nUcleU5, To Th3 5H4p3 OPh +he 0r8i+@l, 4Nd to 1+S 0ri3Nt4TIOn 1n $P@cE.


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Q26. 1F +Eh 3L3C+r0N CAnN0+ b3 lOc4L1z3D, C4n I+ B3 M0ViNg?
IN it5 LOwe$+ S+a+e 1n +HE hYdro9En A+Om (1N wHich L=0) tH3 ELEc+RoN H45 z3r0 4NGUl4R mOmENtum, SO 3Lec+R0n$ In S ORBI+AL5 ar3 NOT 1n mOT1on. IN Or81T4lS ph0R wh1cH L>0 THE eLeC+R0N D03$ haVE @N eFf3C+IVE 4nGul4r M0MentUm, @Nd $Ince +3H el3c+r0n 4L5o H45 4 DEF1n1+E Re$+ m455 m3 = 9.113*31 K9, i+ mu5+ po55E$5 AN 3FFec+IV3 VEL0ci+Y. it$ V@lUe c4n 83 E5+im@Ted FRoM TEH UnC3RT4IN+y pr1NC1pLE; 1pH +He v0LumE In WhIcH The 3l3Ctr0n Is c0NPhINED I5 @80u+ 10–10 M, +h3N +3H Unc3RT41NTy 1n 1t5 MOm3NtuM I$ 4+ L345T h/(10);= 6.63*24 k9 m S–1, WH1CH imPli35 4 veL0C1Ty oph @R0UND 107 m –1&, 0R alM05T 0NE-+En+h t3H v3L0ciTy oF L19h+.

+He $+ROn9ER teh eleCTr0$t@+ic fOrCE OF @tTr@C+10n 8y +h3 nuCLeu$, +3h PH45TEr +Eh ephFecTiV3 3LEc+Ron V3L0c1+y. 1N f4Ct, +3h 1nn3RmOSt 3lecTr0N5 Of t3H HE4v1er El3Men+$ h@Ve eFPheCT1v3 V3lOCItIe$ 50 H19H +h4+ R3l4Tiv15+ic EfFECt5 5et IN; +h@+ i5, +hE 3PHPhEc+IvE m@S$ Of +He 3L3ctRON $19n1PH1C4NtlY exC3eD5 1+S RE5+ M@$$. th1$ H45 D1R3ct Ch3mIc4L 3Ffec+$; 1T I5 +He C@Use, PH0R ex4mPle, 0f +3h low melT1NG POiN+ Of ME+4ll1C mErCury 4nD oF +3H C0lOr oF 90ld.


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Q27. why D035 +He 3l3CtR0n N0t F4LL 1N+O +3h nucleU5?
TH3 n3g4+1V3LY-ch4RG3D eLeC+r0n 15 @+TR4CtEd +0 the pO$1t1V3 Ch@R9e oPH +h3 nuCleu$. whA+ preVeNt5 1t fr0M F4llin9 in? +h1S KWe5+10n C@N 8e 4N$wEred 1n vaRI0u5 w4Y$ @t V4rI0U5 l3VEL$. 4Ll sT4Rt W1Th +EH 5T4T3m3nT +h4+ +hE eleC+r0n, Being 4 KW@n+UM p4r+1cLe, h@5 4 Du4l CH@R4c+Er 4Nd c4nN0t 8e +R3@+3D $0L3lY BY tHE l4w5 0F n3W+onI4N MeCH4n1c5.

WE $@W 48OV3 TH4t 1N I+5 w@VEl1k3 9u1$3, +hE EL3ctR0n 3x15+5 45 4 5t4NDiNG waV3 Wh1Ch mu5T c1rCLE Th3 NUclEU$ 4+ 4 5UfpHicIeNT DI5+AnC3 tO 4Llow 4+ le45+ ON3 w@v3len9TH T0 Ph1+ oN iTS c1rcuMph3rENce. th15 mE4N5 +Hat tH3 $mALL3R +EH r4D1u5 OPh +3h c1rClE, TEh 5HOR+3r Mu5+ 8e +H3 W4VELEN9Th 0f +h3 3LEcTRon, @nd THU5 The HIgH3r tHE eNeRgY. +HuS 1t eNd5 uP "C05TIn9" +Eh electRoN 3NER9Y 1pH 1+ g3+5 +oo cL0$3 tO th3 NUcLeu$. ThE N0RM4l 0rbi+@l r4Diu5 REPR3s3nt$ +3h b4L4ncE bE+weEN +he 3l3C+R0$+A+IC phoRC3 TRy1ng t0 PUlL t3h 3leCTron 1n, aND WH4t we MI9Ht c4LL th3 "C0NPhIn3MEnT en3r9Y" TH4+ 0pPo535 T3H 3lec+rO$+4+1C 3NeR9y. +H15 c0NFIN3ment 3n3R9Y c@N 8E R3L@+3D +0 8Oth +EH P@r+IcLe 4nd w4VE cH4r4cT3r 0F teH 3l3c+r0N.

1PH teh EL3Ctr0N 45 4 P4rt1cLE W3re tO @pPro@CH t3H NuclEu5, t3H UNcERT@intY 1N 1t5 p051tION W0uLd bEc0me 5o $MaLL (0Win9 +o +H3 v3ry 5maLL voLuM3 of 5P4C3 cL0$e TO +H3 NUCLEU5) th4+ t3H mOMEN+Um, And +heR3PHoRe +3h en3RGy, w0UlD h4Ve +o b3C0mE veRY l@R9E. Th3 El3c+ROn W0uld, 1n EphpHECt, BE "kICKed OUt" of +HE nUClEar r3gI0N bY +he C0nPH1N3m3NT 3nErGY.

+h3 5T4nD1n9-w4ve p4++ErN$ 0F 4n 3LectRoN 1n @ 8oX c4n 8e C4lcuLAteD KWite 3@51lY. f0r A 5Ph3rIc4L 3nCl0sUR3 Of Di4meteR D, +3H ENERgy 15 91v3N 8y

IN wH1Ch N = 1,2,3. 3+C.


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Q28. WH@+ I$ eL3c+RON $piN?
EAcH 3lECTr0n 1N 4n @tOM H45 45$0Ci4TEd W1+H 1T 4 M@9n3tIC ph13LD wHo5E d1r3cTI0n i5 Kw4nT1Zed; Th3R3 @RE ONly tw0 pO$5I8l3 VAlU35 th4t p0iN+ 1N oPp0$i+e DirEctiOn5. WE u5u@LLY r3f3R +0 +he$E A$ "up" @Nd "dOWn", 8u+ tH3 @ctuAl DIRec+i0n5 @Re P4r@LLEl 4ND 4N+ip4rALL3L t0 +HE lOCal M@GNETIC FIELd 4$$oCI4+3d W1+H TH3 0r8I+4L mo+i0N 0Ph T3H EleC+ROn.

THE t3rM 5pin 1MPLi35 thA+ Thi$ mA9ne+1C m0m3N+ 1$ PRoduced 8y tEh ElEcTron Ch@r9e 45 TEH ELeC+R0n RO+4+3$ 4B0uT It5 0WnzOR 4x15. 4l+HOugH tH1$ C0nVEY5 @ v1VId m3n+4L p1c+UrE opH TH3 SOURC3 of tHe m4Gn3+i$M, TEH eleC+rON I5 n0t 4N 3XtenD3D BoDy 4ND 1TS rOt@+iOn I5 m3@NInGl355. 3LeC+r0n $PIn h@5 N0 cl@s5iC4l cOUNteRpAR+; +h3 m4gN3+Ic m0MEN+ i5 a con53kW3NC3 0f R3L@t1VI5+1C 5H1Ph+s 1N loc4l 5pAcE 4ND +ime Du3 T0 Th3 H19H ephpheCt1vE v3L0CI+y 0F +He 3LEC+R0N 1n +hE 4+OM. +hi$ 3PhF3cT w45 PR3DIc+ed +he0r3TIC@llY bY p.@.M. dIR@C in 1928.



rEcoMM3NDED R3@dinG
4tkiN5, p.w.: kw4n+4: 4 H@nd80Ok of c0Nc3p+$, 2nd ED. 0XpHoRD, 1991 (qD462 4846)

w0Od9a+e, 9. 3leMeN+4rY @+oMiC 5trUC+uRE, 2nD ED., OxpH0RD 1980. (QC 173 W662)

th3 PhOlLOw1nG B00K$ 4R3 5UIT4BL3 fOr +HE 1n+ELlI93N+ G3nEr@l R34DEr (V3Ry LIT+LE m@THeMAT1C5) 4Nd 4R3 @LL @v4IL@8Le 1N P@pErb4CK:

c@pr4, ph.: TH3 t4o oPH pHy5Ic$: 4N EXplOr@T10N of +Eh p4R4LlEL5 8Etwe3N ModERn PhY5icS @nd 3a5+erN mY5tic15M. 5H4MBH4l@, 1975. (qC6 C277)

DAV1eS, P.c.W.: +EH PhorcE5 OF n4Tur3, c@MbRID9E UN1v3R51+y PRE$5, 1989. (QC793.3 b5 d38)

f3ynM4n, R1Ch4Rd p.: Q3D: ThE s+r4N9E +h3oRy of L19h+ 4ND M4+TeR. PR1nc3ton uNIveR51+Y PRE$5, 1985.

9ri8Bin, John: 1N 5e4RCH Oph 5cHr0DiNgER'5 C4t. L0NdOn: W1LDw0Od, 1984. (qc173.98.G5)



--------------------------------------------------------------------------------


© bY 5t3ph3n K. Low3r 1990-97; All rI9H+$ RE$ERv3D. c0Mm3N+5 @r3 weLc0M3. a PR1NT@8L3 vErSI0N Of th15 docuMeNt IN 4D083 @CRob4+ fORm4+ I$ @vAil48l3 f0R dowNl0@d1ng.

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Old 9th June 2001, 11:14   #3
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0|-| |\/|y 90D!!
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Old 9th June 2001, 11:25   #4
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http://www.geocities.com/mnstr_2000/translate.html

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Old 9th June 2001, 11:28   #5
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c|-|E4+3R
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Old 9th June 2001, 11:34   #6
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D0 j00 3XpEcT |\/|3 +o +R@N5L4+e +|-|@+ +o 31337 8y |-|A|\|D?

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Old 9th June 2001, 11:41   #7
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COrr3ct1O|\|

Quote:
Originally posted by willfisher
http://www.geocities.com/mnstr_2000/translate.html
T|-|4+ UrL $h0uL|) h@vE b33|\|:
|-|++p://\/\/wW.geoCi+i35.C0|\/|/m|\|5+R_2000/tr4|\|5L4+e.H+|\/|l

The smiley slot machine! | Quotable Blog
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Old 9th June 2001, 13:20   #8
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|_053r

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Old 9th June 2001, 13:37   #9
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Oh my God.

-- Jarsonic

do justly | love mercy | walk humbly
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Old 9th June 2001, 13:51   #10
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I know people who ACTUALLY type like that! Forget a translator
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Old 9th June 2001, 14:04   #11
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The weird thing is that I can read that like it's normal text
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Old 9th June 2001, 17:11   #12
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50 C4|\| i..loL


1 likE c|-|1c|<i|\| 'N' c|-|eE5E.

@ll Y0uR b4$3 4Re B3L0|\|9 tO Le3T
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Old 9th June 2001, 17:14   #13
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0|-| MY 9od, \/\/1Ll j00 plE45e cUT 1+ 0ff \/\/1+|-| +h3 Fo0|<i|\|' LEe+5p3A|<...

/look at me! me is using "advanced leetspeak"

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Old 9th June 2001, 17:28   #14
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|-|a|-|4, L@m3R i |)0N+ |<n3e|) +0 U53 +h@+ stUPI5 TR4|\|$l@+OR
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Old 9th June 2001, 18:07   #15
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Quote:
Originally posted by phisherman
The weird thing is that I can read that like it's normal text
Maybe you've had too much of this:


And not enough of this:


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Old 9th June 2001, 20:10   #16
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4lL +Eh W0RLd'$ @ L@n
4nD 4Ll TH3 M3N aND WomeN, MErEly H4ck3r5

-wiLLi@M L3eT$peaR3
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Old 9th June 2001, 23:46   #17
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0|-|, 7|-|15 15 J|_|57 P|_41|\| 54|)...

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Old 10th June 2001, 11:06   #18
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1 @|\/| +|-|3 |\/|05+ 3|33+ |-|4><0R |)00|) 1|/| +h3 \/\/0r||)! | r0><0r |\/|0r3 +|-|4|\| b0><0r!!!

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Old 10th June 2001, 18:52   #19
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/-\|-|, |3|_|+ _|00 |)0 |\|0+ |20><0|2 |\/|0|23 +|-|/-\|\| |, |=|2|3|\||)!

Or, if you prefer (as I do), the same message in ASCII |33+:
Åh¸ bµt j00 dø ñøt rø×ør mørë thâñ ϸ frìëñd!

This is your brain.
This is your brain on pot.
This is your brain desperately searching for Doritos.

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Old 10th June 2001, 18:56   #20
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/-\|-|, |3|_|+ _|00 |)0 |\|0+ |20><0|2 |\/|0|23 +|-|/-\|\| |, |\/|`/ |=|2|3|\||)!

Or, if you prefer (as I do), the same message in ASCII |33+:
Åh¸ ßµ† jØØ Ðø ñø† ®ø×ø® mø®£ †hâñ ϸ m¥ ƒ®ì£ñÐ!

This is your brain.
This is your brain on pot.
This is your brain desperately searching for Doritos.

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Old 10th June 2001, 19:15   #21
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.---- / .- -- / ....- -. / ...-- .---- ...-- ...-- --... / .... ....- -..- ----- .-. / ....- -. -.. / .. / ----- .-- -. --.. ----- .-. / ....- - / -.- .-- ....- . -.- / ...-- / ....- .-. . -. ....- .-.-.- / .--. .... . ....- .-. / -- -.-- / -- ....- -.. / ..... -.- .---- .-.. .-.. ..... --..-- / -.. --- --- -.. --..

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Old 10th June 2001, 21:12   #22
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Old 10th June 2001, 21:13   #23
Huehuetenango
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Quote:
Originally posted by willfisher
.---- / .- -- / ....- -. / ...-- .---- ...-- ...-- --... / .... ....- -..- ----- .-. / ....- -. -.. / .. / ----- .-- -. --.. ----- .-. / ....- - / -.- .-- ....- . -.- / ...-- / ....- .-. . -. ....- .-.-.- / .--. .... . ....- .-. / -- -.-- / -- ....- -.. / ..... -.- .---- .-.. .-.. ..... --..-- / -.. --- --- -.. --..
yeah, morris code
wait, this was in another thread, wasn't it?

oh well

i don't like leet speak, i try to read it, i sometimes succeed, but it jsut gives me a headache
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Old 10th June 2001, 21:26   #24
will
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the joke was that:
.---- / .- -- / ....- -. / ...-- .---- ...-- ...-- --... / .... ....- -..- ----- .-. / ....- -. -.. / .. / ----- .-- -. --.. ----- .-. / ....- - / -.- .-- ....- . -.- / ...-- / ....- .-. . -. ....- .-.-.- / .--. .... . ....- .-. / -- -.-- / -- ....- -.. / ..... -.- .---- .-.. .-.. ..... --..-- / -.. --- --- -.. --..
is morse code for: "1 am 4n 31337 h4x0r 4nd i 0wnz0r 4t kw4ek 3 4ren4. phe4r my m4d 5k1ll5, doodz"
which is l33t for "I am an elite hacker and i am good at Quake 3 Arena. Fear my mad skills, dudes"

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Old 12th June 2001, 09:30   #25
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wH@t W45 1+ l1k3 To s3e
+|-|3 F4CE 0F y0Ur p\/\/|\| 5t48iLI+y
5u|)|)EnLY lOO|< 4w@y
LEa\/in9 j00 \/\/iT|-| tE|-| |)34D @|\||) |-|op3L3$5?

El3\/eN 4|\|D 5|-|E \/\/@5 90|\|3.
eLEv3N i5 \/\/H3|\| we W4V3|) 9o0|)-8y3.
El3\/3|\| 1$ 5+@N|)I|\|G $+iLL,
\/\/@i+I|\|9 ph0R |\/|E +o FREE h1|\/|
8y Co|\/|In9 |-|0M3.

mOVIng |\/|3 \/\/1TH 4 soUn|).
Op3|\|I|\|G |\/|e w1T|-|In @ g3$tURe.
|)r@\/\/1|\|G |\/|3 dO\/\/|\| @n|) 1|\|,
S|-|o\/\/1ng me w|-|ere iT 4ll B39@n,
3LE\/en.

it to0k $O lo|\|G t0 Re4l1z3 T|-|@+
y0u |-|0l|) t|-|3 l1g|-|+ T|-|4T's BE3|\| L34dI|\|g |\/|e B4Ck |-|0|\/|3.

u|\|d3r @ |)e4|) o|-|I0 5ky,
3l3VE|\| |-|45 BeE|\| AN|) w1ll 83 \/\/@Iti|\|9,
DePHE|\||)I|\|G hI$ L1G|-|+,
@|\||) wo|\|d3R1|\|G...
\/\/H3R3 t|-|3 |-|3Ll |-|@V3 i B3E|\|?
5leePi|\|9, L0$+, a|\|d |\|u|\/|B.
S0 9l4D t|-|4t i |-|Av3 FOu|\||) you.
1 4|\/| W1|)e @WA|<3 @nd H3@DI|\|g |-|0|\/|3.

Hold YOUr L19H+,
El3\/EN.
Le4|) |\/|e +hRouGh 34c|-| ge|\|+L3 $tep 8Y $+ep
by 1|\|CH 8Y lO@D3|) |\/|3|\/|0ry.

1'lL M0\/3 T0 |-|E4L
45 S0o|\| a5 p41|\| 4llOWs 50 \/\/e c@|\|
r3U|\|1T3 4n|) bo+h MO\/3 o|\| +09eT|-|Er.

|-|0l|) y0ur li9|-|+,
eLeVE|\|. LE@D |\/|3 +hr0Ugh 34C|-| ge|\|+lE s+3p 8Y 5+EP
8Y 1NCh 8Y lO@D3|) |\/|3MOry
't1lL o|\|e 4|\|d 0|\|e 4RE 0|\|e, EL3\/3|\|,
50 9l0\/\/, ch1l|), 9LO\/\/.

1'm |-|Ea|)I|\|g 84c|< |-|0|\/|3.

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Old 12th June 2001, 21:31   #26
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|<00|_ P03|\/| |3|ZZ|\|/-\+<|-|!
|)||) _|00 \/\/|2|+3 |+ _|00|2S3|_F?

This is your brain.
This is your brain on pot.
This is your brain desperately searching for Doritos.

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Old 12th June 2001, 21:38   #27
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argh, i can actually understand this

and is that a song or a poem
if so, by whom?
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Old 12th June 2001, 23:36   #28
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The song was "Jimmy" by Tool

c'mon guys, you should know that one!
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Old 15th June 2001, 13:01   #29
theboyjenkins
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whatever happen to the leet speak winamp language pack?

wh4TEvEr H4Pp3N +o +hE L3et 5Pe4k win4Mp L4N9UA93 p4CK?

"...ambience?, I AM ambience"
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Old 1st July 2001, 21:34   #30
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there is a l33t lang pack for wa3 a667:
http://www21.brinkster.com/willfisher/31337.xml
http://forums.winamp.com/showthread....048#post294048

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Old 1st July 2001, 21:37   #31
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erm...
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Old 19th May 2003, 10:50   #32
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k3k3k3k3k3k3k3k3k3 n1hahahahahahahahaha
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Old 19th May 2003, 11:00   #33
Viper007Bond
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Quote:
Originally posted by will
the joke was that:
.---- / .- -- / ....- -. / ...-- .---- ...-- ...-- --... / .... ....- -..- ----- .-. / ....- -. -.. / .. / ----- .-- -. --.. ----- .-. / ....- - / -.- .-- ....- . -.- / ...-- / ....- .-. . -. ....- .-.-.- / .--. .... . ....- .-. / -- -.-- / -- ....- -.. / ..... -.- .---- .-.. .-.. ..... --..-- / -.. --- --- -.. --..
is morse code for: "1 am 4n 31337 h4x0r 4nd i 0wnz0r 4t kw4ek 3 4ren4. phe4r my m4d 5k1ll5, doodz"
which is l33t for "I am an elite hacker and i am good at Quake 3 Arena. Fear my mad skills, dudes"
Did you use a translator or something?

- Viper007Bond | Viper007Bond.com
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Old 19th May 2003, 11:02   #34
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0H 90|) |\|0t T|-|iS 4G41n. ca|\| i po5+ 5|-|4kE$Pe4R?

W3LL |\|O BEc@u53 1 |)0|\|'T |-|A\/3 4nY.

.: fwgx.co.uk.:.My art:.

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Old 19th May 2003, 12:23   #35
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900|). 1 [)0|\|T \/\/4|\|T t0 ]-[4\/3 t0 |_1573|\| 70 T]-[4t Kr4p.
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Old 20th May 2003, 00:04   #36
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\/\/|-|Y \/\/45 +|-|15 Ol|) THRE4|) R3Vi\/e|)?

Darn, I can't think of anything to put here.
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Old 20th May 2003, 00:24   #37
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pH0R T3H 54M3 RE4$0n @Ll 0Ld g4y Thr3@ds 4r3 REViV3d
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Old 20th May 2003, 02:07   #38
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*searches frantically for a padlock*
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Old 20th May 2003, 02:41   #39
Cognition
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Quote:
Originally posted by will
there is a l33t lang pack for wa3
That's terri...3y3 |\/|34|\|, 7h475 73rr!fy!|\|g.
3y3 4|\/| d0\/\/|\|104d!|\|g !7 |\|0\/\/.
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Old 20th May 2003, 04:27   #40
iomegajaz
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I'm going to hurt you all very soon.

This was all extremely hilarious... two fucking years ago. Christ. Get some new material, Bizz.

Lockz0red.

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